Doorashooyinku waa dariiqa xalaasha ah ee loo maro isbedelka awoodeed ee dalalka dimuqraadiyadu ka hanaqaaday. Laakiin doorashooyinku ma damaanad qaadaan xallinta mashaakil oo idil mar mar waaba ay sii xoojiyaan xurguftii jirtay. Waxa suutro gal ah in doorashooyinku noqdaan qaar xor ah aanse xaq ahayn.

Doorashooyinku waa udub dhexaadka dowladaha wakiilada dimuqraadiga sabab?

Sababtoo ah dimuqraadiyad ahaan, awoodda dowlada waxa ay ka timaadaa ogolaanshaha kuwa la xukumayo. Waana hanaan bulshadu ku go’aamiso cida iyaga u matali lahayd nidaamka dowladnimo. Dimuqraadiyada wakiiladu waa mid ka mid ah ujeedooyinka bulshooyinka casriga ah. Wakiiladu baarlamaanku waxa ay leeyihiin saddex hawlood; metelaada doortaha, sameynta sharciga iyo kormeerida xukuumada iyadoo loo marayo dhageysiyada iyo weydiimaha.

18, May, 1991 waxa ay Somaliland ku dhawaaqday gooni-isutaaga madax banaanideeda shirkii Burco, iyada oo aasaaskii hore ee dhismaha dawliga ah lagu bilaabay in odayaasha dhaqanku soo xulaan hoggaanka, isla markaana ay jaangooyaan hanaanka siyaasadeed.

Dagaal sokeeye, colaad xalin, dib u heshiisiin, nabad dhisid, iyo yagleelid dowladnimo casriya kadib waxa ay guda gashay hanaanka xisbiyadda badan iyo doorashooyinka dimuqraadiga ah ee metalaada golayaasha shacabka (democratic elections based on representative’s council system).

31, May, 2001 ayay dadweynaha u codeeyeen dastuurka Somaliland, codayntaasi waxa ay u gogol xaadhay in doorashooyin dadweynuhu ku dooranayaan madaxdiisa ka hirgalaan gudaha. Ansixintii dastuurku waxa ay suurto galisay in laga guuro xaaladii kumeelgaadhka ee axdi qarameedkii (transnational national charter), waxa kale oo xigay aasaasidii ururadda siyaasada.

Bishii December ee sanadkii 2002 ayaa la qabtay doorashadii deegaanada degmooyinka, waxa saddexdii urur ee ugu codka badnaa loo aqoonsaday xisbiyadda rasmiga ah ee ku tartamaya doorashooyinka madaxtooyadda, iyo wakiilada.

Burco: 18, May, 1991 waxa ay Somaliland ku dhawaaqday gooni-isutaaga madax banaanideeda shirkii Burco, iyada oo aasaaskii hore ee dhismaha dawliga ah lagu bilaabay in odayaasha dhaqanku soo xulaan hoggaanka, isla markaana ay jaangooyaan hanaanka siyaasadeed.

Bishii April 2003 ayaa loo dareeray doorashadda madaxtooyada waxaana ku guulaystay Madaxwayne Dahir Rayaale. Laba sano kadib Rayaale waxa uu qabtay doorashadii u horeysay muran saami qaybsi oo ku sahabsanaa sida loo qaybsan lahaa kuraaska wakiilad ilaa la isla gaadhay maxkamadda sare, qaraarna ay ka soosaartay marankaa. 29, September, 2005 ayaa loo dareeray doorashada golaha wakiilada iyada oo la abuuray isfaham qaabka loo qaybsanayo kuraasta.

Doorashadaas waxa ku tartamay 246 mushrax oo ka kala socday saddexda xisbi ee kala ahaa Udub, Kulmiye, iyo Ucid. Tan iyo intii ka dambaysay doorashadaas dib dambe looma qaban doorashada wakiilada. Maxay tahay sababta iyo caqabadaha hortaagan qabsoomida doorashada?

Maxaa xal ah si loo galo doorashadda wakiilad? Mudadii sida sharciga ah la doortay waxa saddex jeer ka badan mudada korodhsiimaha ay ku fadhiyaan sababna?

Caqabadaha Doorashadda Golaha Wakiilada

  1. Saami qaybsiga kuraasta golaha wakiilada (distribution of seats in the house of representative)
  2. Kala xadaynta gobolada iyo degmooyinka (delimitation of regions and districts)
  3. Kootadda haweenka iyo dadka laga tiro badan yahay (Women & minority clan’s quota)
  4. Tirakoob la’aan rasmiya (lack of national census)
  5. Goobaha codbixinta (polling stations).
  6. Qoondada Dhaqaalihii lagu qaban lahaa doorashada.
  7. Dib u qoondaynta kuraasta gobolada ee golaha (seat re-allocation)
  8. Diwaan gelin la’aanta codbixiyayaasha golaha wakiilada.
  9. Ka go’naansho la’aan siyaasadeed iyo ku dhiiranaan la’aanta go’aamada muhiimka u ah qabsoomida doorashada.
  10. Degmooyinka goboladda bariga oo aan gacanta dowlada ku wada jirin, suurtogalna ayna la ahayn in doorasho qof iyo cod ah ka qabsoonto.

Xalalka Hannaan Doorasho ee ugu Habboon 2020

Xalalkan hoos ku taxan waa afkaar ay kala qabaan aqoonyahanka bulshweyntu inta xalka u rabta in maaro loohelo mukhilada doorashada aqalka wakiilada Somaliland muddo dhaafka ah. Taas oo ah in aqoonyahanku kala qabaan afar aragtiyood oo kala duwan;

  1. In la sameeyo tirakoob dadweyne
  2. In waxkabedel lagu sameeyo dastuurka JSL si loo kordhiyo xubnaha wakiilada
  3. In lagu saleeyo natiijadii codbixiyayaasha doorashooyinka.
  4. In hab beeleed waxa loogu qaybsado

Si doorashadu u suurtogasho waa in la sameeyaa tirakoobka dadka iyo guryaha (population & housing census) guud ahaan Somaliland. Tirakoobkaa waxa la ogaanayaa wadarta guud ee tirada dadka ku nool dalka, waxaana soo baxaysa sida gobolada dadku u kala badan yahay.

Marka la helo tirada cunfaanta gobolka, waxa loo qaybinayaa wadarta guud ee dadka Somaliland ku nool, kadib waxa lagu dhufanayaa 82, waxa soo baxaysa kuraasta gobol walba inta uu ka helayo kuraasta aqalka wakiiladda.

Si aynu u fahano aynu tusaale soo qaadano qiyas mala-awaal ah (hypothetical estimation), waxa la sameeyay tirakoobka guud ee dalka, kadib wax la ogaaday tirada guud ee rasmiga ah oo ah 4,869,372 oo qof in dalka ku nool yihiin. Mar hadii tirada guud ee dalku tahay 4.8 Milyan, gobolka awdalna ka noqday tirakoobkaas 1,093,925. Si aynu u ogaano tirada kuraaska uu aqalka wakiilada ku yeelanayo sidan ayay noqonaysaa xisaab ahaan:

1,093,925 ÷ 4,869,372*82= 18 kursi

Tusmada 1aad Saami qaybsiga kuraasta hab tirakoob ah

S/N Gobolka Tirada Dadka Kuraasta Xadiga kuraasta%
1.        Maroodijeex 1,206,541 20 24.7%
2.        Awdal 1,093,925 18 22.4%
3.        Togdheer 998,045 17 20.4%
4.        Sanaag 705,981 12 14.4%
5.        Sool 513,894 9 10.5%
6.        Saaxil 350,986 5 7.2%
  Wadarta Guud 4,869,372 82 100%

 

  1. Si loo gaadho xal ku meelgaadh ah doorashadda golaha wakiilada waa in lagu saleeyaa tirokoobkii1 ay qaaday sanadkii 2014 hay’adda Qaramadda Midoobay u qaabilsan dadka UNPFA, wasaaradda qorshayntuna kala shaqaysay sida lagu xusay warbixinta. Maadaama oo ay dowladda Somaliland kala shaqaysay, sidaa ayaan u soo qaatay tirakoobka eeg bogga 31aad ee tirakoobka UNPFA.

Haddii aynu shaxayno tirakoobka UNPFA sidan ayuu noqonayaa:

Gobolka Tirada Dadka
Waqooyi Galbeed 1,242,003
Awdal 673,263
Togdheer 721,363
Sanaag 544,123
Sool 327,428                       
Wadarta guud 3,508,180

Tirakoobkaas marka lagu dabaqo tirada golaha wakiilada ee 82 mudane, sidan hoose ayay u kala helayaan goboladu

Gobolka Tirada kuraasta Tiradii Kuraasta Hore 2005 Korodh / Isdhin Xadiga boqolayda
Waqooyi Galbeed 29 30 1 ayaa ka go’ay 35%
Awdal 16 13 3 ayaa u kordhay 19%
Togdheer 17 15 2 ayaa ka go’ay 21%
Sanaag 13 12 1 ayaa u kordhay 16%
Sool 7 12 5 ayaa ka go’ay 9%
Wadarta guud 82 82 100%

 

  1. Si loo xaliyo caqabada doorashada waa in wax ka bedel iyo kaabis lagu sameeyaa qoddobka 40aad, farqadiisa 1aad tirada xubnaha golaha wakiilada si waafaqsan qoddobka 126aad ee dastuurka lagana dhigaa kuraasta aqalka wakiilada 104. Iyada oo xubnahaa baarlmanaaka lagu soo dooranayo doorasho guud oo toos ah iyo cod bixin qarsoodi ah oo xor ah (secret ballot). Si turxaan bixin loogu sameeyo cabashada goboladda galbeedka iyo goboladda bariga waa in min 10 xubnood loogu kala daraa kuraasta. Xalkani waa hanaan xal doorasho oo hagaajinaya qaab-doorasheedka wakiiladda bulshadda Somaliland (Modified enhanced representative’s council legitimacy).

Tusmada saami qaybsiga kordhinta xubnaha aqalka wakiilada 104

S/N Gobolka Tirada kuraasta Tiradii Kuraasta Hore 2005 Xadiga kuraasta%
1.        Maroodijeex 23 20 22%
2.        Awdal 20 13 19%
3.        Togdheer 20 17 19%
4.        Sanaag 15 12 14%
5.        Sool 15 12 14%
6.        Saaxil 11 10 10%
Wadarta Guud 104 82 100%

 

  1. Si qabsoomida xalka mushkilada doorashada loo turxaan bixiyo ayna u fusho waa in lagu saleeyaa natiijadii codbixintii doorashadii 2005 ee gobol walba. Kadib waxa soo baxaysa maxsuul lagu wada qanci karo.

Natatiijadii codbixinta iyo sida ay tirada kuraasta goboladu u kala helayaan.

Gobolka Codbixintii 2005 Tirada kuraasta
Maroodijeex 253,299 31
Awdal 133,020 16
Togdheer 121,751 15
Sanaag 89,286 11
Sool 20,557 3
Saaxil 52,479 6
 Wadarta Guud 670,322 82
  1. Si xal habboon oo maangal ah loo gaadho waa in loo qaybsadaa tirada xubnaha kuraasta aqalka golaha wakiilada ee baarlamaanka raashiyo ahaan sidan 2:1:1, oo la micno ah in 50% beesha dhexe qaadato xubnaha kuraasta, 25% beesha galbeedka iyo 25% beesha bariga. Habkan hanaan beeleedka ku salaysan sida ayaa loo kala yeelanayaa kuraast 82 ah; 40 Isaaq, 20 Gadabuursi, 20 Harti iyo 2 beelaha laga tiro badan yahay.
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